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Signs of oestrus
Stockpersons must be aware of the full range of signs of proestrus to oestrus and be able to understand some basic reproductive physiology in order to accurately predict the timing of ovulation, The infusion of quality semen at the right time in the right placeis essential to successful Al, The following key points will outline the basic rules.

This is the period just prior to standing for mating/when the gilt/sow becomes restless and is easily disturbed - duration around one day. A proestrus female may:
    1. Have a swollen and red vulva (more typical in gilts but not consistently in sows)
    2. Climb up gates and walls
    3. Produce a watery dischargefromthe vulva
    4. Emit a high-pitched whine
    5. Mountother females but not stand themselves.
This is the period during which the sow is prepared to Stand for mating. An oestrous female may:
    1. Have a normal vulva (swelling arid reddening subsides)
    2. Stand with tail upright and flicking up and down Have a poor appetite
    3. Become very vocal - repeated grunts or long growls
    4. Display pricked ears Show "standing reflex" Stand with arched back Have glazed eyes
    5. Tremble
    6. Have a tacky discharge from the vulva
    7. Be attracted to stockperson
    8. Seek contact with the boar - if allowed
    9. Stand rigid if mounted by other females
    10. Be able to withstand the "back pressure test" in the presence of the boar. Not all ofthese signswill be seen in any one female. Different females exhibit oestrus in different ways and the "art of the stockperson is to be able to clearly identify and respond to the various signals displayed.